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cognitive dissonance

The state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, or behaviors.

Cognitive dissonance produces a feeling of mental discomfort to provoke an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance.


de Bono, Edward (1933-2021)

Maltese physician, psychologist and author known for originating the term 'lateral thinking'.

Best known for his works 'Lateral Thinking: Creativity Step-by-Step (1970)' and 'Six Thinking Hats (1985)', de Bono wrote 85 books, mainly about thinking strategies and creativity.


Dichter, Ernest (1907-1991)

American psychologist and marketing expert who applied Freudian psychanalytic concepts to business.

Known as 'the father of motivational research', Dr Ernest Dichter was a psychologist, marketing research executive, and originator of practical motivational research in advertising, communications, management, and politics.


convergent thinking

The opposite of divergent thinking, where the object is to give the one 'correct' answer to a problem.

The way of thinking with the object of coming up with the accepted or most logical answer to a problem. It can be used in conjunction with divergent thinking to organize and structure ideas with the objective of reaching a single solution.


divergent thinking

A thinking strategy and method for generating creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.

The goal of divergent thinking is to generate as many ideas as possible within a short period of time. It is importent to suspend judgement, allowing all ideas - good and bad - to go on the list. When time is up, we switch to convergent thinking to narrow down the list and expand on the useful ideas.


extrinsic motivation

Reward-driven behavior. External (not related to the activity itself) rewards and incentives like praise, prizes, and money are used for motivation.

Anything we're promised (either by others or by ourselves) or gain as a result of performing the activity is an extrinsic motivator. Unlike with intrinsic motivation, the reward comes from somewhere other than the satisfaction of doing the task itself.



The mental state in which a person performing some activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.

Named by psychologist Mihály Csíkszentmihályi in 1975, flow is characterized by the complete absorption in what one does, wholly engaged to the point where we let go of or temporarilly suspend our awareness of time, food, and the self.


intrinsic motivation

One's motivation, the pleasure and reward, are intrinsic to the activity itself

Like children at play, people do something because they enjoy doing it and for no other reason.



A scripting or programming language that allows you to implement complex features on web pages. The programming language for the web.

A scripting language for the web that's used for creating dynamically updating content, interactive experiences, animated graphics, and more.



The basic human ability to be fully present, aware of where we are and what we’re doing, and not overly reactive or overwhelmed by what’s going on around us.

The practice of bringing awareness to what you’re directly experiencing via your senses, or to your state of mind via your thoughts and emotions.


motivational research

A type of marketing research that attempts to explain why people do the things they do.

Motivational research seeks underlying or unconscious motives that drive consumer behavior by attempting to uncover what consumers do not fully understand about themselves.



The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character.

Motivational research seeks underlying or unconscious motives that drive consumer behavior by attempting to uncover what consumers do not fully understand about themselves.



    A interpreted high-level general-purpose programming language.

    Python is a popular programming language with many possible uses. Python's simple, easy to learn syntax emphasizes readability and therefore reduces the cost of program maintenance.


    vertical thinking

    Problem solving with a conventional logical processes.

    Vertical thinking takes a traditional step-by-step approach, while lateral thinking involves steps that aren't sequential but may still reach the same end. For example, 4 + 4 = 8 is vertical thinking because the equation moves in a straightforward and specific sequence.


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    Written by brian kerr
    "Existentialism Is a Cyborgism"
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